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1 1 fūr thermās cutē intrāvit. fūr, thermās ingressus, d fontem scrum festīnāvit. 4 senex, dem precātus, mulētum in fontem iniēcit et exiit. 2 fūr, prope fontem stāns, circumspectāvit. fūr, senem cōnspicātus, post columnm sē cēlāvit. fūr, quī mulētum ureum vīdert, d fontem revēnit. fūr, d fontem regressus, mulētum in quā quesīvit. 6 fūr, mulētum deptus, ttonitus lēgit: 3 senex, mulētum ureum tenēns, d fontem prōcessit. senex mnūs d celum sustulit et uxilium ā deā Sūle petīvit. fūr mulētum dēiēcit et ē thermīs perterritus fūgit. Prev Pge 22 Stge Stge /1

2 Vili Modestus Vili et Ruri, pōcul sordid lvntēs, in culīnā terne grriēnt. he puelle ernt fīlie Ltrōnis. Ltrō, quī ternm tenēt, ert vir mgne dīligentie sed minime prūdentie. Ltrō, culīnm ingressus, puellās vituperāvit. mult sunt pōcul sordid. iueō vōs pōcul qum celerrimē lvāre. lōrāte! nōlīte grrīre! loquāciōrēs estis qum psittcī. Ltrō, hec ver locūtus, exiit. Vili tmen, que pulchr et ostināt ert, ptrī nōn pāruit. pōcul nōn lāvit, sed Rurie fīulm ostendit. Ruri fīulm, qum soror tenēt, vidē spectāvit. Ruri: Ruri: Ruri: Ruri: qum pulchr, qum pretiōs est hec fīul, me Vili! em īnspicere velim. quis tii dedit? num rgente est? sānē rgente est. Modestus, mīles Rōmānus, em mihi dedit. quālis est hic mīles? estne homō mendāx et ignāvus, sīcut cēterī mīlitēs Rōmānī? minimē! est vir mxime virtūtis. ōlim tri mīli hostium occīdit. nunc lēgātum ipsum custōdit. Herculēs lter est! ego utem tālem fāulm sepe ex liīs mīlitius udīvī. cēterī mīlitēs mendācēs sunt, Modestus prous. simulc ternm nostrm intrāvit, eum sttim māvī. quntī ernt umerī eius! qunt rcchi! tii fvet fortūn, me Vili. quid utem dē Bulō dīcis, quem ōlim māās? tii perīculōsum est Bulum contemnere, quod rēs mgicās intellegit. nōlī illm pestem commemorāre! Bulus, sepe dē mātrimōniō locūtus, nihil umqum effēcit. sed Modestus, quī fortissimus et udācissimus est, mē cūrāre potest. Modestus nunc est suspīrium meum dīligentie: dīligenti industry, hrd work minime: minimus very little ingressus hving entered locūtus hving spoken fīulm: fīul rooch vidē egerly quālis? wht sort of mn? virtūtis: virtūs courge tri mīli three thousnd occīdit: occīdere kill lēgātum: lēgātus commnder lter nother, second utem ut quntī: quntus how ig rcchi: rcchium rm Bulō: Bulus Bulus (His nme mens onion. ) contemnere reject, despise mātrimōniō: mātrimōnium mrrige suspīrium hertthro Modestus et Strȳthiō d ternm Ltrōnis mulnt. Strȳthiō, qumqum mīcus Modestī est, eum dērīdet. Strȳthiō: Strȳthiō: Strȳthiō: Strȳthiō: ui es, Strȳthiō? iueō tē prope mē stāre. dsum. hercle! qum fortūnātus sum! prope virum summe virtūtis stō. tū enim fortior es qum Mārs ipse. vērum dīcis. ōlim tri mīli hostium occīdī. tē omnēs puelle mnt, quod tm fortis et pulcher es. ill Vili, heri tē cōnspicāt, sttim māvit. mult dē tē rogāvit. quid dīxit? mē vidē rogāvit, estne Herculēs? minimē! est frāter eius, respondī. tum fīulm, qum puell li tii dedert, Vilie trādidī. Modestus, vir enignus et nōilis, inqum, tii hnc fīulm grātīs dt. Vili, fīulm dept, mihi respondit, qum pulcher Modestus est! qum līerālis! velim cum eō colloquium hēre. ēheu! nōnne moleste sunt puelle? mihi difficile est puellās vītāre. nimis pulcher sum. ecce! d ternm Ltrōnis dvēnimus. fortsse inest Vili, que tē tmqum deum dōrt. (ternm intrnt.) Strȳthiō: Strȳthiō Strythio (His nme mens ostrich. ) Mārs Mrs (Romn god of wr) vērum the truth cōnspicāt: cōnspicātus hving cught sight of 1 inqum I sid grātīs free dept: deptus hving received, hving otined colloquium tlk, cht 20 nimis too inest: inesse e inside tmqum s, like Two silver rooches joined y chin. Prev Pge 24 Stge 22 2 Stge /1

3 Aout the lnguge 1: perfect ctive prticiples 1 In Stge 21, you met sentences contining perfect pssive prticiples: 2 rēx, ā Rōmānīs honōrātus, semper fidēlis mnēt. The king, hving een honored y the Romns, lwys remined loyl. puelle, ā ptre vituperāte, nōn respondērunt. The girls, hving een lmed y their fther, did not reply. In Stge 22, you hve met nother kind of perfect prticiple. Study the wy it is trnslted in the following exmples: Vili, culīnm ingress, sorōrī fīulm ostendit. Vili, hving entered the kitchen, showed the rooch to her sister. mor omni vincit scen prīm Bulus et mīcus in ternā Ltrōnis sunt. vīnum iunt ālemque lūdunt. Bulus mīcō multm pecūnim dēet. (mīcus Bulī) qum īnfēlīx es! nōn sōlum puellm, sed etim pecūnim āmīsistī. pecūnim nōn cūrō, sed Vilim mem āmittere nōlō. quō modō em retinēre potes? mīles Rōmānus, vir summe virtūtis, em petit. heus! Venerem ictāvī! cupō! iueō tē plūs vīnī ferre. mor love omni ll, everything scen scene ālem lūdunt re plying dice Gutt Gutt (His nme mens drop or droplet. ) Venerem: Venus Venus (highest throw t dice) ictāvī: ictāre throw senex, dem precātus, iit. The old mn, hving pryed to the goddess, went wy. The words in oldfce re perfect ctive prticiples. Like other prticiples they chnge their endings to gree with the nouns they descrie. Compre the following pir of sentences: singulr plurl puer, mīlitēs cōnspicātus, vldē timēt. puerī, mīlitēs cōnspicātī, vldē timēnt. 3 Trnslte the following exmples: c d e Modestus, ternm ingressus, Vilim cōnspexit. Vili, mult ver locūt, tndem tcuit. mercātōrēs, pecūnim deptī, d nāvēs contendērunt. fēmin, dem Sūlem precāt, mulētum in fontem iniēcit. ncille, ānulum cōnspicāte, eum īnspicere volēnt. In ech sentence, pick out the perfect ctive prticiple nd the noun which it descries. Stte whether ech pir is singulr or plurl. 4 Only smll group of vers hve perfect ctive prticiple; they do not hve perfect pssive prticiple. mīles, quī em dēcēpit, homō mendāx ignāvusque est. Vili, eō dēcept, nunc mē contemnit. em sepe monuī, nōlī mīlitius crēdere, presertim Rōmānīs. Vili tmen, hunc Modestum cōnspicāt, sttim eum māvit. puellīs nōn tūtum est per viās huius oppidī īre. tnt est rrognti hōrum mīlitum. hercle! tū etim īnfēlīcior es. cnem iterum ictāvistī. lium dēnārium mihi dēēs. dēnārium lienter trādō, nōn puellm. ōdī istum mīlitem. Modestus tmen puellm retinēre nōn potest, quod uxilium ā deā petīvī. dem precātus, tulm in fontem scrum iniēcī. dīr imprecātiō, in tulā scrīpt, im in fonte dee icet. (intrnt Modestus et Strȳthiō, quōs Bulus nōn videt.) mortem Modestī letus exspectō. hercle! īnfēlīcissimus es. ecce! nōīs ppropinqut ipse Modestus. necesse est mihi qum celerrimē exīre. (exit currēns.) presertim especilly rrognti rrognce, excessive pride cnem: cnis dog (lowest throw t dice) ōdī I hte precātus hving pryed to tulm: tul tlet, writing tlet imprecātiō curse scrīpt: scrīere write Prev Pge 26 Stge Stge /1

4 scen secund Modestus īrātus Bulum vitupert, quod ver eius udīvit. quid dīcēās, homuncule? mortem mem exspectās? sine! tū, quod mīlitem Rōmānum vituperāvistī, in mgnō perīculō es. Strȳthiō! tē iueō hnc pestem vererāre. tum ē ternā ēice! Strȳthiō invītus Bulum vererāre incipit. Bulus, fortiter sē dēfendēns, vīnum in cput Strȳthiōnis fundit. Modestus Bulum, simulc tergum vertit, ferōciter pulst. Bulus exnimātus prōcumit. Vili, que clāmōrēs udīvit, intrt. ingress, Bulum humī icentem videt et Modestum mollīre incipit. The Romns were very fond of gmes involving dice, oth the kind we re used to (fr left), nd more novel vrieties like the little mn (left), who cn fll six wys up; here he scores 2. The lrger of the cuic dice hs hollow in it, possily for loding the dice. ēice: ēicere throw out incipit: incipere egin fundit: fundere pour tergum ck humī on the ground mollīre soothe scen terti per silentium noctis thermās intrnt Bulus et Gutt. prope fontem scrum sē cēlnt. Bulus Gutte stolm et pllium, quod sēcum tulit, ostendit. Gutt, volō tē hec vestīment induere. volō tē persōnm Vilie gere. nōīs necesse est dēcipere Modestum, quem revī exspectō. vh! virō nōn decōrum est stolm gerere. pretereā rm heō. id minimī mōmentī est, quod in tenerīs sumus. nōnne tii persuādēre possum? ecce! decem dēnāriōs tii dō. nunc tcē! indue stolm plliumque! stā prope fontem dee! ui Modestus fontī ppropinqut, dīc eī ver suāvissim! Gutt, postqum stolm invītus induit, prope fontem stt. Modestus, sōlus thermās ingressus, fontī ppropinqut. 1 pllium clok vestīment clothes persōnm Vilie gere ply the prt of Vili revī in short time vh! ugh! pretereā esides mōmentī: mōmentum importnce tenerīs: tenere drkness dēsine, mī Modeste. iste Bulus, ā tē vererātus, iterum mē vexāre nōn potest. tū es leō, iste rīdiculus mūs. volō tē clēmentem esse et Bulō prcere. plcetne tii? mihi plcet. victōrius decōrum est victīs prcere. tē, nōn istum, querō. ō Modeste, cūr mē ex omnius puellīs ēlēgistī? qum let sum! necesse est nōīs in locō sēcrētō noctū convenīre. id fcere nōn udeō. pter mē sōlm exīre nōn vult. ui est hic locus? prope fontem dee Sūlis. nōnne tii persuādēre possum? mihi difficile est iuss ptris neglegere, sed tii resistere nōn possum. dā mihi ōsculum. ēheu! ō suspīrium meum! mihi necesse est d culīnm redīre, tii noctem exspectāre clēmentem: clēmēns merciful prcere spre victīs: victī the conquered sēcrētō: sēcrētus secret noctū y night iuss: iussum order, instruction neglegere ignore, disregrd exeunt. Bulus, quī mgnm prtem huius colloquiī udīvit, surgit. qum celerrimē ēgressus, Guttm petit, cui cōnsilium cllidum prōpōnit. 30 ēgressus hving gone out cui to whom (dtive of quī) The scred spring s it is tody. Prev Pge 28 Stge Stge /1

5 Vili, me Vili! Modestus, fortissimus mīlitum, dest. ō dēlicie mee! venī d mē. qum ruc est vōx tu! num lcrimās, quod trdus dveniō? it vērō! tm sollicit erm. lcrimās tuās siccāre possum. (Modestus d Guttm dvenit.) dī immortālēs! Vili! rm hēs? quid tii ccidit? ō! tum Bulus Modestum in fontem dēicit. Vili, thermās ingress, ui clāmōrēs udīvit, prope iānum perterrit mnet. pereō! pereō! prce! prce! furcifer! Vilim mem, qum vldē mō, uferre udēs? nunc mihi fcile est tē interficere. nōlī mē interficere. Vilim tii reddō. em ā tē uferre nōlō. Vilim nōn mō. Vili, simultque hec udīvit, īrāt fontī ppropinqut. Modestum vituperāre incipit. mē nōn mās? ō hominem ignāvum! ego ips tē interficere velim. me Vili, victōrius decōrum est victīs prcere. mī Bule, dēlicie mee, miserrim sum! longē errāvī. nōlī lcrimāre! ego tē cūrāre possum. ō Bule! ō suspīrium meum! Bulus et Vili domum redeunt. Gutt stolm plliumque exuit. dēnāriōs letē numert. Modestus ē fonte sē extrhit et mdidus it siccāre dry uferre tke wy, stel longē errāvī: longē errāre mke ig mistke exuit: exuere tke off Aout the lnguge 1: more out the genitive 1 In Unit 2 you met exmples of the genitive cse like these: mrītus Gltēe ert Aristō. The husnd of Glte ws Aristo. prō templō Cesris stt ār. In front of the temple of Cesr stnds n ltr. 2 In Stge 21 you hve met nother use of the genitive. Study the following exmples: stis pecūnie nimium vīnī plūs snguinis multum ciī Ech phrse is mde up of two words: enough money, literlly, enough of money too much wine more lood much food A word like plūs or nimium indicting n mount or quntity. A noun in the genitive cse. 3 Further exmples: nimium pecūnie nihil perīculī c d 4 In Stge 22 you met exmples like these: homō ingeniī prāvī mn of evil chrcter plūs lōris multum que fēmin mgne dignitātis womn of gret prestige In oth exmples, noun (homō, fēmin) is descried y nother noun nd n djective oth in the genitive cse. Such phrses cn e trnslted in different wys. For exmple: puell mgne prūdentie girl of gret sense Or, in more nturl English: very sensile girl vir summe virtūtis mn of the utmost courge Or, in more nturl English: very courgeous mn Further exmples: c homō minime prūdentie iuvenis vīgintī nnōrum fēmin mgne spientie d e f fāul huius modī puell mxime clliditātis vir ingeniī optimī Prev Pge 30 Stge Stge /1

6 Word ptterns: more djectives nd dvers In Stge 21 you met the following pttern: 1 djectives dvers letus hppy letē hppily perītus skillful perītē skillfully 2 Study nother common pttern of djectives nd dvers: djectives dvers revis short reviter shortly ferōx fierce ferōciter fiercely 3 Using this pttern s guide, complete the following tle: 4 suāvis sweet suāviter neglegēns neglegenter crelessly udāx udācter Divide the following words into two lists, one of djectives nd one of dvers. Then give the mening of ech word: fortis, fidēliter, īnsolēns, fortiter, spienter, īnsolenter, fidēlis, spiēns. Choose the correct Ltin word to trnslte the word in oldfce in the following sentences: Quintus ws sensile young mn. (prūdēns, prūdenter) Slvius rode quickly into the courtyrd. (celer, celeriter) c The soldier ws hppy ecuse the goddess hd cured him. (letus, letē) d Vili worked diligently only when her fther ws wtching. (dīligēns, dīligenter) e Slvius sometimes cted very cruelly to his slves. (crūdēlissimus, crūdēlissimē) Prcticing the lnguge 1 Complete ech sentence with the correct form of the noun. Then trnslte the sentence. c d e f g h Modestus per viās mulāt, puellām querēns. (oppidī, oppidō) Gutt, vir enignus, uxilium sepe dt. (mīcī, mīcō) Ruri, que in ternā lōrāt, vīnum otulit. (iuvenis, iuvenī) prope vīllm , tur ingēns conveniēt. (hruspicis, hruspicī) ternārius multās rēs pretiōsās ostendit. (ncillārum, ncillīs) clāmōrēs rchitectum vexāvērunt. (frōrum, frīs) centuriō gldiōs hstāsque īnspicere coepit. (mīlitum, mīlitius) cupō vīnum pessimum offerēt. (hospitum, hospitius) 2 Complete ech sentence with the correct form of the djective. Then trnslte the sentence. suitō ncill in ātrium irrūpit. (perterrit, perterrite) rēx, postqum hoc udīvit, frōs dīmīsit. (fessum, fessōs) c senātor quī dert iuvenēs ludāvit. (cllidum, cllidōs) d omnēs cīvēs nāvem spectānt. (scrm, scrās) e ui in mgnō perīculō erm, mīcus mē servāvit. (fidēlis, fidēlēs) f in illā īnsulā, inquit senex, hitnt multī virī (ferōx, ferōcēs) g fēmin , que in vīllā mnēt, fūrem superāvit. (fortis, fortem, fortēs) h cīvēs in viīs oppidī mīlitēs vidēre solēnt. (multus, multī, multōs) Prev Pge 32 Stge Stge /1

7 Mgic, curses, nd superstitions Mny thousnds of offerings hve een recovered from the spring t Aque Sulis. Some of the finds indicte tht there were people nxious to use the powers of the gods for unplesnt purposes, elieving it ws possile to dedicte n enemy to the gods of the Underworld. When Romn religious sites re excvted, rcheologists sometimes find smll sheets of led or pewter inscried with curses. These re known s dēfīxiōnēs, or curse tlets, which cll for the punishment of n enemy. Over three hundred hve een found in Britin lone. The method of putting curse on someone followed generl formul. The nme of the offender, if known, ws written on tlet, with detils of the crime. The offender ws then dedicted to god, who ws clled on to punish the offender, usully in very unplesnt wy. If the offender ws unknown, the tlet would provide list of suspects. The completed tlet ws rolled or folded up nd then fstened to tom with long nil or thrown into well or spring. Aout ninety curse tlets were found in the scred spring t Aque Sulis. One such defixio reds: Docilinus, son of Brucerus, to the most holy goddess Sulis. I curse him who hs stolen my hooded clok, whether mn or womn, whether slve or free, tht... the goddess Sulis inflict deth upon... nd not llow him sleep or children now or in the future, until he hs rought my hooded clok to the temple of her divinity. On nother tlet womn dedictes her stolen ring to the god Mrs: Bsili gives to the temple of Mrs her silver ring, tht so long s someone, slve or free, keeps silent or knows nything out it, he my e ccursed in his lood nd eyes nd every lim, or even hve ll his intestines entirely eten wy, if he hs stolen the ring or een n ccomplice. A jelous lover my hve written one of the most fmous tlets of Aque Sulis, tlet tht inspired the stories out Vili nd Modestus in this Stge: My he who hs stolen Vili from me dissolve like wter. My she who hs devoured her e struck dum, whether it e Velvinn or Exsupereus or Verinus (here follows list of six other suspects). The first side of Docilinus' curse. The Vili curse, like mny others, ws written ckwrds to increse the mystery of the process. Mgicl nd pprently meningless words like escu, ereescu, zgr were sometimes dded to increse the effect, rther like the use of rcdr in spells. Sometimes we find figure roughly drwn on the tlet, s in the illustrtion on the right. It depicts erded demon, crrying n urn nd torch, which were symols of deth. The ot in which he stnds my represent the ot of Chron, the ferrymn of the Underworld, who took the souls of the ded cross the River Styx. The wording of the curse cn e very simple, just I dedicte followed y the intended victim s nme. But sometimes it cn e ferociously eloquent, s in the following exmple: My urning fever seize ll her lims, kill her soul nd her hert. O Gods of the Underworld, rek nd smsh her ones, choke her, let her ody e twisted nd shttered phrix, phrox. It my seem strnge tht religion should e used to ring hrm to people in this very direct nd spiteful wy, ut the Romns tended to see their gods s possile llies in the struggles of life. When they wished to injure n enemy, they thought it nturl nd proper to seek the gods powerful help. Some Romns lso considered it nturl tht the gods might give ōmin (omens or wrnings) of impending dnger nd tht proper ction could vert misfortune. It ws sfer to sty t home fter stumling on the threshold, hering the hooting of n owl, or hving d drem. Mny people would tke cre to mrry only on certin dys nd in certin months, to cross the threshold with the right foot, nd to wer n mulet to wrd off the evil eye. Crefully oserving the signs sent y the gods nd tking pproprite precutions could turn side some of the perils of life. The Vili curse. Prev Pge 34 Stge 22 3 Stge /1

8 Voculry checklist 22 deptus, dept, deptum mor, mōris, m. celum, celī, n. dēcipiō, dēcipere, dēcēpī, dēceptus ēligō, ēligere, ēlēgī, ēlēctus fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus hostis, hostis, m. ictō, ictāre, ictāvī, ictātus incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus ingressus, ingress, ingressum lcrim, lcrime, f. minimus, minim, minimum moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus nox, noctis, f. prcō, prcere, pepercī precātus, precāt, precātum quntus, qunt, quntum quō modō? tūtus, tūt, tūtum verum, verī, n. virtūs, virtūtis, f. vītō, vītāre, vītāvī, vītātus hving received, hving otined love sky deceive, trick choose pour enemy throw egin hving entered ter very little, lest wrn, dvise night spre hving pryed (to) how ig how? sfe word courge void One of the Bth curse tlets, folded s it ws found. Prev Pge 36 Stge /1