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7 目 次 略語表要約 Summary 写真 第 1 章評価調査の概要 評価調査の背景と目的 評価の枠組み 評価の対象 評価の対象期間 評価調査方法 評価項目 調査実施上の制約 評価調査の実施体制と作業工程 実施体制 作業工程 6 第 2 章パキスタン地震災害国際緊急援助 災害の状況 パキスタン政府の対応 我が国の対応 チームの派遣期間 活動内容 調査結果 STOP the pain に基づく評価 その他の観点からの評価 24 第 3 章インドネシア ジャワ島中部地震災害国際緊急援助 災害の状況 インドネシア政府の対応 要請 我が国の対応 チームの派遣期間 活動内容 調査結果 STOP the pain に基づく評価 その他の観点からの評価 41

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23 Summary I. Outline of the Evaluation Study 1. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this evaluation study is to objectively analyze the Japan Disaster Relief Team (JDR) operation (activities) and verify the effectiveness of the JDR Evaluation Guidelines adopted since FY2002. First, individual and overall evaluations of seven JDR activities, ranging from the 2003 Iran earthquake to the 2006 Philippines Guimaras Island oil spill disaster, were conducted according to these Guidelines at the end of FY Two activities the Search and Rescue Team and Medical Team dispatched to the Pakistan earthquake and the Medical Team dispatched to the Indonesian Central Java earthquake were selected as case studies, and evaluation studies were conducted with an outside disaster management expert. This Report summarizes the results of the case studies, the lessons learned and recommendations that were drawn from a comprehensive analysis of the above seven activities, in order to improve future JDR activities and evaluation methods. 2. Targets of the Study The JDR activities pertaining to the seven emergencies shown in Table 1 were selected as targets of the study. Table 1 Targets of the Study Emergency Date the emergency occurred 1 Earthquake disaster in Iran December 26, Earthquake disaster in Morocco February 24, Earthquake off the coast of Sumatra and Indian Ocean tsunami December 26, Indonesian Nias island earthquake disaster March 28, Earthquake disaster in Pakistan October 8, Indonesian Central Java earthquake disaster May 27, Oil spill disaster off Guimaras Island, Philippines August 11, Evaluation Study Implementation Period The period of the study was from March to August 2007; this included the field surveys in Pakistan and Indonesia from June 24 to July 7, The study was conducted by reviewing related documents and reports, and interviewing Japanese and local persons concerned, in accordance with the JDR Evaluation Guidelines. Table 2 shows the members of field study. i

24 Table 2 Members of the Field Survey Name Role Occupation Hitoshi SATO Leader Team Director, Training Team, Secretariat of JDR Team, JICA Shunkichi KOSAKA Disaster Relief Evaluation Assistant Professor, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Evaluation Advisor) Rina HIRAI Evaluation Management Staff, Country & Thematic Evaluation Team, Office of Evaluation, Planning & Coordination Department, JICA Takeshi SEKIYA Evaluation & Analysis (Consultant) Chief Executive Officer, Crystal Intelligence Inc. 4. Evaluation Study Implementation System The Office of Evaluation, Planning and Coordination Department, JICA led this study. An Examination Committee on Evaluation was established consisting of the Office of Evaluation, an evaluation advisor (outside expert), the Secretariat of Japan Disaster Relief Team and a consultant. The Office of Evaluation and the consultant drafted the report based on the results of the domestic and overseas studies and the discussions in the Examination Committee. II. Pakistan Earthquake Disaster JDR Activities 1. Circumstances of the Disaster A strong earthquake of M7.6 occurred at a point 105km North-Northwest of Islamabad in Pakistan at 8:50 local time on October 8, There were 73,338 fatalities, 128,304 injured persons, approximately 500,000 victim families, a total of 400,152 homes, 7,669 educational facilities and 782 medical facilities damaged or destroyed, and 4,429km of road damaged or destroyed. (Reported by Earthquake Reconstruction & Rehabilitation (ERRA) on February 10, 2007) ii

25 2. Dispatch Period and Team Activities Search and Rescue Team From October 9 to October 18, 2005 (49 persons) Search and rescue activities were carried out in Battagram, a northern frontier district, where no foreign emergency relief teams had reached. 3 corpses were evacuated. Medical Team 1st group: from October 10 to 23, 2005 (21 persons) 2nd group: from October 20 to November 2 (21 persons) The team was the first foreign medical team to arrive in Battagram. 2,242 disaster affected residents were treated. 3. Investigation Results (1) Evaluation based on STOP the pain Speed: Preparations for dispatch of the JDR team were handled promptly after occurrence of the disaster. However, transit of the Search and Rescue Team from Japan to Pakistan took time because the team had to use commercial aircraft for travel. In addition, because the team could not enter the nearest airport to the devastated area, the team encountered considerable difficulties moving team members and equipment and materials from the arrival point to the remote mountain area. However, through logistical support by organizations concerned, the Search and Rescue Team was able to enter the disaster affected area after 37 hours and 50 minutes and speedily started its activity, which was relatively early by comparison with past activities. The Medical Team also entered the field by the same route and could start their activities as the first external support team to reach the affected area. Target groups: Meeting affected people s needs The activity of the Search and Rescue Team ultimately did not lead to the rescue of survivors in Battagram. If the team had been dispatched to Muzaffarabad, the most seriously affected city, rather than to Battagram, this would have enabled the team to respond to an urban-type disaster, for which the team was specialized, and widen its activity. However, its activities for the victims as the only support team in the area based on the request from the Pakistan military can be evaluated positively. The Medical Team operated in the same area as the Search and Rescue Team in response to the urgent request from the Pakistan government. Finally, because it was the first overseas medical team in the field, the Medical Team played a central role in coordinating medical activities among medical teams in the area. As a result, the team was able to meet the medical needs in Battagram. iii

26 Operation: Activity efficiency Because the Search and Rescue Team had no information on the site in advance, the Team encountered difficulties under unexpected conditions such as search and rescue activities in camp. The skills of team members and equipment and materials, which were prepared for disasters in urban areas, were not always utilized adequately. However, it could be said that the Team accomplished its duties to meet victims expectations in cooperation with the Army. As the Medical Team prepared for its activities based on information about the situation in the site obtained from the Search and Rescue Team, members skills and equipment and materials were fully utilized. As a result, the Medical Team could be evaluated to have provided high-quality services to victims and to have contributed to the establishment of a regional medical system in the area. Presence: Degree of acknowledgment Because the team site was located in a remote mountain area, there were fewer representatives of the mass media than in large city sites. However, the team politely attended to all visitors, from whom it received favorable reports, appreciation and encouragement, so the team s presence can be evaluated as not insignificant. Nevertheless, it was difficult for the team to transmit positive information in remote areas. Therefore some strategies, such as further cooperation among the Secretariat of JDR, the local Embassy of Japan and local JICA offices, should be considered. (2) Evaluation from other points of view Foundation for the activities With regard to the JDR Medical Team Activities Manual, the members understood the contents based on their training and performed activities based on the manual during the mission. Important duties such as numbering charts and doses were included in the manual. Involvement in reconstruction and medium to long-term disaster prevention efforts JICA dispatched the project formulation study team for the rehabilitation and reconstruction projects in northern Pakistan and participated in a joint assessment investigation with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). There was no direct relation between JDR s activities themselves and this study. However, in Battagram, health and educational facilities are under construction based on Non-Project Grant Assistance from Japan, and seamless assistance from emergency relief to reconstruction assistance is provided by the Government of Japan. iv

27 General subjective evaluation All personnel concerned answered that their degree of effort was approximately 80% to 100%. It is believed that a close to maximum effort was performed by adapting to the daily changing situation. On the other hand, degree of achievement for the Search and Rescue Team was from 50% to 80%, in contrast to the Medical Team staff, most of whom answered 90%. Contributing/hindering factors One large contributing factor for the JDR teams activities was the assistance the teams received from the Embassy of Japan and the JICA office in Pakistan, such as coordination among the affected governmental authorized agencies and acceptance of the team. On the other hand, problems stemming from the time required for transit and arrival at the site because of the use of commercially scheduled flights had an impact on equipment and materials transport and allocation of the site for JDR activities. The Medical Team played a central role in emergency medical support, not only because it was the first team in the area but also because it had superior facilities and scale compared to later teams. On this point, operating activities in the remote mountain area at Battagram might be said to have been a contributing factor. Training outcomes Search and Rescue Team : The Search and Rescue Team Joint Training was useful for familiarizing individuals with team activities and coordination among the team members from three agencies and the secretariat staff. On the other hand, it is necessary to study the details, including standard operating procedures in developing countries whose situations are different from Japan. Medical Team : All participants were able to understand their roles by actively participating in the general activities of the JDR medical team and experiencing simulated activities through the induction training. The skill improvement training was highly effective, particularly for the management of infection diseases, measures against diarrhea and other symptoms that are seldom seen in Japan. v

28 III. Indonesian Central Java Earthquake JDR Activities 1. Circumstances of the disaster A strong earthquake of M6.3 occurred at a point 37.2km South-Southwest off Yogyakarta Special State, Indonesia at 5:53a.m. local time on May 27, There were 5,778 fatalities, 137,883 injured persons, 699,295 displaced persons and 2,340,745 victims, and US$31 billion in losses (as of January 12, 2007, Source: Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters). 2. Dispatch period and team activities Survey Team From May 28 to June 10, 2006 (7 persons) The team coordinated with the affected country s authorized agencies, then set up a simple clinic in front of Muhammadiyah hospital in Bantul city where needs were urgent and began medical activities. Medical Team 1st group: from May 29 to June 10, 2006 (16 persons) 2nd group: from May 31 to June 14, 2006 (3 persons) 1,211 affected patients were treated through local medical activities over a ten-day period. Mobile medical activities in five villages in the area were also performed. 3. Investigation results (1) Evaluation based on STOP the pain Speed: The decision to dispatch the Survey Team was made at an early stage and preparations proceeded rapidly. The Medical Team was also able to leave Japan within 48 hours. There was no time wasted in arriving at the disaster-affected country and no major troubles encountered in domestic travel. The Survey Team members and equipment and materials were compactly-grouped, which ensured promptness. This enabled the Medical Team to start its activities smoothly. As a whole, the rapid response can be evaluated positively. Target groups: Meeting affected people s needs The Medical Team established its site in front of Muhammadiyah Hospital, which was the most accessible base for the affected people in the disaster area. This enabled the JDR team to provide medical services effectively for victims in cooperation with the hospital and to conduct full-dress mobile medical activities. From these points, the team is vi

29 evaluated to have met victims needs with the performance of its activities. Operation: Activity efficiency The operations of the Medical Team are evaluated as efficient because team members and equipment and materials were effectively utilized by providing the Medical Team with information and having the Survey Team secure the suitable site, and working together with Muhammadiyah Hospital, International Organization for Migration (IOM), Japanese NGOs and other groups. Presence: Degree of acknowledgment Many foreign and domestic mass media visited the JDR site and reported on JDR s operations. Its presence was observed by Japanese Diet members and governmental authorities from Indonesia and was very highly evaluated. On the other hand, transmission of information to international societies through Relief Web and provisions for further spontaneous information need to be reconsidered. (2) Evaluation from other points of view Foundation for the activities With regard to the JDR Medical Team Activities Manual, the members generally understood the contents based on their training and performed activities based on the manual as their guidelines during the mission. On the other hand, there were some comments that the manual provided only the principles, and the contents to include in the Manual that would be useful for activities in the field need to be discussed. Involvement in reconstruction and medium to long-term disaster prevention efforts This was the first team for which the Advance Party of the rehabilitation & reconstruction project formulation study team joined the Medical Team. Getting to the field quickly after the disaster with an eye toward reconstruction was significant to grasp the needs the affected country. Moreover, members were able to receive advice on health and medical reconstruction and rehabilitation needs from a professional point of view by sharing information with the Medical Team members. On the other hand, it was pointed out that disaster reconstruction efforts are not limited solely to the health and medical field, and when seamless assistance from JICA or Japan are considered it is not always important to directly relate the contents of cooperation only with JDR activities. vii

30 General subjective evaluation In terms of degree of effort, it can be determined the staff gave its maximum effort in a variety of situations as determined by the responses of 100% from the team members and the supervisor of the JICA Indonesia office. In contrast, staff in the JDR Secretariat, who answered 80%, appear to have been concerned about the delay in the aftermath of the earthquake. Regarding degree of achievement, the competent team members and authorized JICA office personnel responded 100%, while the first participating members answered 70%. This was because there were some confusion in the activities on its first mission. Contributing / hindering factors The main contributing factors included the securing of a favorable site by the Survey Team, the selection of team members who can speak the local language and interpreters who speak fluent Japanese, and the capacity of JICA s Indonesia office to provide disaster relief. On the other hand, hindering factors were the lack of an information gathering system after the occurrence of the disaster, and the lack of clearly established criteria for the dispatch of the Survey Team Training outcomes The induction training succeeded in acquainting staff on views of activities in disaster areas in developing countries, local culture and how to set up air tents and treatment equipment. Moreover, knowledge from the skills improvement training concerning how to record charts and code medical treatment was used to advantage. Because every disaster situation is different, however, there were some critical points, including comments that Members who cannot work without the manual are useless and it is important to have flexibility in order to react at the time. IV. Lessons Learned and Recommendations 1. Speed Dispatching JDR teams promptly, selecting a favorable site and beginning activities quickly are important in order to meet victims needs with accuracy and demonstrate JDR s presence. Therefore, although efforts have been made so far, measures need to be considered to further ensure prompt response. To speed up response to the devastated country, the use of charter flights is one issue to be considered. Conversely, a major challenge that remains is how to transfer the necessary team viii

31 members and amount of equipment and materials needed for self-sufficient activity to the local affected area, even though members and equipment are already selected. With regard to transporting equipment and materials, it is also necessary to improve packing procedures due to weight restrictions. However, coordination with the local side is tremendously important until JDR teams arrive at the first entry point in the affected country. Therefore, cooperation between the Secretariat of JDR, the Embassy of Japan and the JICA office is believed to largely influence the speed of operations. 2. Target groups: Meeting affected people s needs For decisions on whether the dispatch of the Search and Rescue Team can meet the affected people s needs, it is important to improve the ability to collect and analyze information during a limited time-frame. In addition, after the decision to dispatch, speedy negotiation with the affected country by the Japanese embassy and in-country JICA office is of major significance in securing the activity site where the Search and Rescue Team can satisfactorily demonstrate its ability. For the Medical Team, it is important to support the local main hospital by setting up the site nearby, and to cooperate with the hospital by transferring those patients the team cannot treat from the team to the hospital. This will lead to smooth medical activities by the local facilities after the team withdraws, and was reconfirmed as a key point for the decision on the site. 3. Operation: Activity efficiency It is not easy to confirm acceptance of the team by the affected country, negotiate in advance with the Local Emergency Management Authority and the military, secure domestic transportation in the disaster affected country, assign interpreters and drivers and procure various items in the local area, and conduct remote operations between the team and the Secretariat of JDR. To enhance the efficiency of JDR activities, it is important to share the awareness that understanding and cooperation with surrounding concerned personnel is indispensable. Some dispatches of the Medical Team brought advanced diagnostic apparatus. When there are no medical facilities, or when there is widespread suffering, there is a large need for increasing the number of team members and amount of equipment, to enable team members to provide advanced medical treatment such as surgery. On the other hand, increasing the number of members and amount of equipment might be the factor that inhibits a rapid response. In the future, it will be necessary to strengthen logistical support in order to improve medical performance. 4. Presence: Degree of acknowledgment To ensure further JDR presence, it is significant for the organization responsible for JDR activities to actively send information. The essential point is to have effective publicity scenarios ix

32 for the Secretariat of JDR in Japan, with the help of the local Japanese embassy, for sending information to the affected country and the world at large. Furthermore, when JDR teams are dispatched, effective strategies such as the dispatch of professional publicity staff should be considered, in order to double the amount of information sent from the activities in the field. 5. Training and Manual With regard to the JDR Medical Team Activities Manual, the team members generally understood the contents of the training; it was confirmed the manual was useful as their activity guidelines during the mission. In addition, it also was verified that the contents of the training were effective for operating activities in the field. It is also necessary to be able to revise the manual from time to time, and to have practical training through simulation of independent thinking during the regular training course, so participants are capable of considering how to apply the manual in any situation. 6. Dispatch of the Survey Team Given the continuous expectation for JDR teams to start their activities in the disaster areas quickly, it was confirmed that the Survey Team contributed to greatly shortening the time before the start of activities and effectively establishing the site by providing accurate information and selecting the site in advance. By comparison, the Medical Team left Japan waiting for the dispatch command by the Japanese Government. Systematizing the use of the Survey Team in future will be a tremendously beneficial approach to enhancing the results of emergency aid. 7. Seamless transition from emergency aid to reconstruction support For the support to Indonesia that was the target of this case study evaluation, the Advance Party members of the reconstruction & rehabilitation project formulation study team participated in the JDR team as a first attempt to bridge the gap between JDR s activities and the reconstruction and rehabilitation program. Being able to continue activities consistently through this experience, from occurrence of a disaster in the affected country to forming the rehabilitation support activities to take over emergency disaster support, was a major step forward. V. Suggestions for Revision of the JDR Evaluation Guidelines 1. Project Design Matrix (PDM) Although it was decided to draft the PDM in advance in the Evaluation Guidelines STOP the pain, the preparation of a PDM is not easy given the lack of time after a disaster and the lack of x

33 objective information. In addition, it is difficult to add necessary revisions during operations in the field, where the situation changes day after day. It is not realistic to plan, monitor and evaluate each JDR mission based on a PDM. The approach for the PDM in the Evaluation Guidelines STOP the pain should be reconsidered. 2. Contents of evaluation items in STOP the pain and evaluation scope The four items in STOP the pain refer to the pilot post-evaluation based on five evaluated items of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). The items are believed to roughly cover the necessary points of view in this evaluation as well, which actually used the Evaluation Guidelines. With regard to the detailed points necessary for analysis of the four items and setting the judgment criteria, however, more consideration is needed. Furthermore, because the usual training course for enhancing authorized personnel skills and knowledge is critical for the success of JDR activities, the course should be added as an evaluation subject. 3. Evaluation Times The Evaluation Guideline STOP the pain assumes four evaluation times for Pre-departure Review, Mission Review 1, Mission Review 2, Outside Evaluation. However, it is not practical to conduct evaluations during a disaster situation that is continually changing and imposes time restrictions. Moreover, because JDR activities are completed in a short time, it is difficult to review the activities contents with the passage of time even if an evaluation is performed after the activities. Given these points, it would be effective and efficient to conduct the Pre-departure Review and Mission Review 1 meeting immediately after the teams return to Japan and summarize the substance of the meetings in an activity report, then conduct the Mission Review 2 at an early stage when circumstances have settled down. The Outside Evaluation should similarly be carried out as soon as possible after the evaluation report has been submitted from the Secretariat of JDR. 4. Basic information for the evaluation The procedures for collecting, entering and sharing information and data necessary for evaluations should be considered and organized, and consistent data and information systems should also be established. Furthermore, it would be better to investigate assigning monitoring staff to a JDR team and conducting data collection in parallel with the rescue activities by other members. This monitoring staff would be expected to collect and manage data, function as a spokesman who formulates publicity strategy and contribute to raising JDR s presence. xi

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134 JICA テーマ別評価報告書サマリーペーパー 報告書目次 第 1 章評価調査の概要第 2 章パキスタン地震災害国際緊急援助第 3 章インドネシア ジャワ島中部地震災害国際緊急援助第 4 章教訓及び提言第 5 章国際緊急援助隊評価ガイドライン改訂への提言 被災者への治療を行うパキスタン医療チーム隊員 評価調査の概要 (1) 背景と目的 JICA は 日本国政府の決定に基づき国際緊急援助事業として 自然災害及び紛争に起因しない人為的災害を対象に 国際緊急援助隊の派遣及び緊急援助物資の供与を実施している 近年 国際緊急援助事業においても 効果的で効率的な事業の実施を図るため 適切かつ客観的に評価を行うことが求められている しかしながら 緊急対応という事業の特殊性から 技術協力プロジェクトの評価手法を適用することが困難であるため 事業の形態や性質に合わせた独自の評価手法の確立に取り組んできた 2002 年度に 救助チームと医療チームを対象にした 国際緊急援助隊評価ガイドライン ~STOP the pain 2003 年度には 国際緊急援助隊専門家チーム評価ガイドライン ~LOCK the pain を策定した その後 これらの評価ガイドラインに基づき 緊急援助活動の評価を行っている 本評価調査では 国際緊急援助事業の客観的な分析と評価ガイドラインの有用性の検証を目的として まず 2006 年度 ( 第一年次 ) に過去 7 件の国際緊急援助活動の個別評価結果の取りまとめと横断的分析を行い 国際緊急援助事業評価報告書 を作成した そして 2007 年度 ( 第二年次 ) は パキスタン インドネシアにおける事例研究の結果と第一年次の分析結果を併せて 今後の国際緊急援助事業と評価手法の改善に向けた提言 教訓を抽出し 本報告書に取りまとめた (2) 調査の対象案件本評価は 以下の 7 つの災害に対する国際緊急援助活動 ( 括弧内は災害発生年 ) を対象とした 1 イラン地震災害 (2003 年 ) 2 モロッコ地震災害 (2004 年 ) 3 スマトラ沖大地震 インド洋津波災害 (2004 年 ) 4 インドネシア ニアス島地震災害 (2005 年 ) 5 パキスタン地震災害 (2005 年 ) 6 インドネシア ジャワ島中部地震災害 (2006 年 ) 7 フィリピン ギマラス島沖重油流出海難事故災害 (2006 年 ) そのうち パキスタン地震災害 (5) に対する 救助チーム 医療チーム 派遣 インドネシア ジャワ島中部地震災害 (6) に対する 医療チーム 派遣の 2 件を事例研究の対象として選定し 国内 現地調査を行った 評価の視点 上記 2 件については 国際緊急援助隊評価ガイドライン ~STOP the pain 4 項目 ( 下記 ) と追加の評価項目に基づき 文献レビュー及び国内外の関係者へのインタビュー調査を実施した STOP the pain 4 項目 Speed( 迅速性 ) 派遣決定から日本出発 活動サイト到着 活動開始までの間 迅速に対応したか Target( 被災者ニーズとの合致 ) 被災者のニーズを十分に捉えて そのニーズに的確に対応したか Operation( 活動効率性 ) 投入資源 ( 隊員 資機材など ) を無駄なく活用し 活動の成果に結びつけたか Presence( 認知度 ) チームの活動 成果が 一般の人 ( 被災者を含む ) 被災国政府 他の国際機関 ドナー国などに十分に認知されていたか 事例研究の結果 評価ガイドラインに基づく調査の結果 いずれの事例においても現地関係者からは総じて高い効果を確認することができた パキスタン及びインドネシアの評価結果概要は以下のとおり (1) パキスタン地震災害国際緊急援助活動に対する評価 Speed: 救助チーム 及び 医療チーム の派遣準備は速やかに行われたが 日本 ~ パキスタン間の移動には 民間商用機を利用したため乗り継ぎに時間を要し また現地到着後に山岳地帯の活動サイトまでの人員と資機材の移送は困難を伴った しかし いずれも先方政府からの要請に基づき 外国からの支援チームとして最も早くサイトに到着することができた Target/Operation: 先に派遣された 救助チーム は 事前にサイト情報を入手していなかった

135 ため 本格的な野営や僻地での捜索 救助活動を行うなど 当初想定していなかった状況の下で困難に遭遇した また 都市部での活動を想定していた隊員の技術や携行機材は必ずしも十分には活用できなかったが パキスタン軍との連携 協力やチーム内での協力により 先方政府や地域住民の期待に応える活動を遂行したと言えよう 医療チーム は 救助チーム からサイトに関する情報を得て その情報を基に活動の準備を行うことができ 人的 物的リソースは有効活用された その結果 現地のニーズに対応した質の高い緊急医療サービスを提供するとともに 地域医療体制の再整備に貢献したと評価できる Presence: 活動サイトが山岳地帯であったため マスコミなどの訪問者は大都市の被災地に比べて少なかったが 好意的な報道 謝辞 激励を受けたことから プレゼンスは必ずしも低くはなかったと言える (2) インドネシア ジャワ島中部地震災害国際緊急援助活動に対する評価 Speed: 医療チーム は派遣決定から 48 時間以内に日本を出発し 民間商用機による被災国までの移動も時間的なロスはなく サイトでの活動も円滑に開始することができたことから 迅速性は高かったと言える Target/Operation: 医療チーム に先立って派遣した調査チームが 被災者からアクセスしやすい被災地の拠点病院の前に活動サイトを確保したことにより 医療チーム は同病院と協力体制を構築するとともに 本格的な巡回診療を実施することができた そのため 要員及び資機材を有効活用しつつ 効率的で被災者のニーズに合った活動が可能となった Presence: チームの活動サイトでは 国内外の多くのマスコミの訪問 日本の国会議員 インドネシア政府関係者の視察を受け プレゼンスは非常に高かったと評価できる 国際緊急援助事業に対する教訓 提言 2006 年度に取りまとめた 7 件の評価結果の横断的分析及び今回の事例研究の結果から導き出された 効果的かつ効率的な国際緊急援助事業を実施するための教訓 提言は以下のとおり (1)Speed 迅速性の確保については 従前から取り組みがなされているが 被災者のニーズに的確に応えるとともに 国際緊急援助隊のプレゼンスを示すためには 迅速にチームを派遣すること 適当なサイトを選定し 迅速に活動を開始することが重要である 今後も さらなる改善に向けて チャーター便の活用 被災地内での移動 資機材の運搬等について引き続き検討が必要である (2)Target 救助チーム の能力が十分発揮できる活動サイトを迅速に確保し かつ被災者のニーズに合致するか否かは 限られた時間の中での迅速な情報収集 分析によるところが大きい そのためには 現地の大使館 JICA 事務所との協力や大使館や事務所の被災国政府との交渉が重要である 医療チーム については パキスタンとインドネシアの事例に見られたように 現地の基幹病院の近くにサイトを構えて 病院と連携は図ることは チームの帰国後の現地医療施設における円滑な診療活動の実施にもつながることから サイトを決定する際の重要な点であることが再確認された (3)Operation 被災者での受入確認 災害対策本部 軍などとの事前折衝 便宜供与の手配などについては 本部の国際緊急援助隊事務局やチームだけでは容易に行えない 活動効率性を高めていくには 周囲の関係者の理解と協力が不可欠であるという認識を共有することが重要である また 近年 手術等が可能となるような診療機能の拡充に対するニーズは高いが そのための要員や資機材が増加するため 迅速性を妨げる要因にもなりうる 今後 さらなる緊急医療への対応の向上を図るためには 輸送方法等ロジ面の強化を含めた検討を進めていく必要があろう (4)Presence さらなるプレゼンスを確保するためには 広報戦略に基づき 積極的な情報発信を行うことが重要である しかし 隊員は本来業務に追われており 積極的な広報活動を行うことが困難である チーム派遣時に広報専属担当の派遣など 活動サイトからの情報発信をどのように増大していくかについて検討が必要と考えられる 評価ガイドライン改訂への提言 現行の評価ガイドラインは 緊急援助の実情に必ずしも即していない点もあるため 以下の点も含めて再考する必要がある (1) 評価項目の内容と評価範囲 4 項目ごとの分析を行う際に必要となる詳細な視点 判断基準の設定 評価の範囲等について検討する (2) 評価の時期現行ガイドラインでは チームの派遣前から帰国後まで計 4 回評価を行うこととなっているが 時間的な制約と刻々と変化する被災状況の中でも対応が可能な評価時期や回数を検討する必要がある (3) 評価の基礎情報効率的な評価を実施するために最低限必要な情報は何か またデータの入力方法 関係者間での共有 活用方法について検討 整理し それらを一貫管理できるシステムを確立する さらに 隊員とは別に データ収集のためのモニタリング専任要員をチームに配置する 本件に関するお問い合わせ先 : JICA 企画 調整部事業評価グループ FAX: * 報告書は以下からダウンロード可能です